Data Recording and Playback

How to record data from a running system and play it back.
Ysobel Sims GitHub avatar
Updated 28 Nov 2023

The NUbots system utilises NUClear's message passing architecture. Any messages that are emitted when the system is running can be recorded and saved as NUClear Binary Stream (NBS) files. These NBS files can later be filtered, played back (to simulate the running system), analysed, and converted to alternative formats for further processing.

Recording Data

The following steps detail how to record data. An example will be given throughout showing how to record sensors messages on a real robot.

  1. Set up the role for recording. Most of the time this involves making minor changes to an existing role.

    • The role must contain the module/s which emit the message/s you want to record.
    • The role must contain the module support::logging::DataLogging.

    For example, you may want to record Sensors messages. You could use the existing test/sensor role and add support::logging::DataLogging to it.

  2. Set up the data logging configuration file. This involves making changes to DataLogging.yaml.

    • Add in the messages you want to log, and set their values to true.

      In this example, the sensors message already exists in the file (message.input.Sensors). Set the boolean to true next to this message.

      If you would like to log a different message and it doesn't already have a corresponding line in the DataLogging configuration file, do the following:

      1. Find the .proto file that defines that message, such as Sensors.proto.
      2. Find what the package is. For Sensor.proto, it is package message.input.
      3. Piece this together with the message name (message Sensors in the .proto file) to get message.input.Sensors
      4. Add this to the configuration file with the other messages.

      You can enable multiple messages at once, and they will all be recorded.

  3. Build the code and install it to a robot. To find out how to do this, visit the Getting Started page.

  4. Run the binary for the role you want to record.

    Locally in Docker: In the same location you built the code, run the binary using the command ./b run <role_name>.

    On a real robot: SSH into the robot using ssh nubots@<address> and run the binary built for the role you want to record. For our example, run ./test/sensor.

  5. Stop the binary when you have finished recording by pressing Ctrl+C.

  6. Retrieve the log file.

    Locally in Docker: The log file will be in your NUbots directory under /recordings/<role_name>.

    On a real robot: You will need to move the file off the robot so that it is not lost and so that it can be used. Note that when someone else uses the robot any recordings may be lost, so immediately copy them to another computer.

    1. The NBS file will be located on the robot in the recordings/role_name/ folder. The name will correspond to the time and date it was created, according to the robot's clock. Make note of the name. In our example, this may be recordings/test/sensor/18072020T082100.nbs.

    2. Copy the file across. On the destination computer, run:

      scp nubots@<address>:recordings/rolename/file_name path/to/destination

      For our example, you could run:

      # Replace <address> with the robot's IP address
      scp nubots@<address>:recordings/test/sensor/18072020T082100.nbs .

      The file will be copied from the robot to the folder you ran the command in. The scp command is like the regular cp command, but it copies to or from another computer over SSH. The first path in the command points to the file we are copying and the second path points to where we want to copy that file to.

Extracting Data

NBS files are binary and not easily human-readable. There are tools in the NUbots codebase to convert NBS files to alternative formats that are easier to understand.

These tools are grouped under the ./b nbs command in the NUbots codebase, and can be executed by running:

./b nbs <tool_name> <nbs_file_name> <arguments>


Generates statistics about the messages in an NBS file. This includes a count of each message type in the file, and how many messages there are in total.

# Example
./b nbs stats path/to/file.nbs
--message-timestampUses the message's .timestamp field as the time of the message.


Converts the data in an NBS file to JSON, and prints the output. To save the output to a file, append > file.json to the command.

# Example
./b nbs json path/to/file.nbs > file.json

Extract Images

Extracts JPEG image files from CompressedImage messages in an NBS file. It will also write each image's metadata (Hcw and lens information) to a JSON file next to the extracted image.

# Example
./b nbs extract_images path/to/file.nbs --output path/to/output-folder/
--outputSpecifies the folder to save the images to.The current working directory


Extracts images from CompressedImage messages in an NBS file, and combines them into an MP4 video.

# Example
./b nbs video path/to/file.nbs --output path/to/output-folder/
--outputThe folder to save the video to.The current working directory
--qualityThe quality to save the video in.30M
--encoderThe encoder to use when encoding the video.h264_nvenc

Calibrate Cameras

Calculates camera intrinsics using an NBS recording of asymmetric circles grid patterns.

--configThe path to the directory containing the camera configuration files.Required
--rowsThe number of rows in the asymmetric circles grid.4
--colsThe number of columns in the asymmetric circles grid.11
--grid_sizeThe distance between rows/cols in the grid in meters.0.04
--no-intrisicsDoes not change the intrinsic configuration values.-
--no-extrinsicsDoes not change the extrinsic configuration values.-

Foot Down

Trains a foot down network using sensor data from the legs.

# Example
./b nbs footdown path/to/data-folder/

Playing Back Data

Messages recorded to an NBS file can be played back to the system. When an NBS file is played back, the messages in it are emitted into the system at the same (relative) times they were recorded.

Following on from the previous example, lets now run test/sensor.role with recorded sensor data to analyse the results more closely without using the robot.

  1. Remove any modules that emit the message/s you recorded. In this example, remove the SensorFilter module, since it emits Sensors. To do so, remove input::SensorFilter from the role.
  2. Add support::logging::DataPlayback to the role.
  3. Add in the path to the NBS file in DataPlayback.yaml. If the file is in the recordings directory, then just add in the file name.
  4. Add in the messages you are playing back in DataPlayback.yaml, in the same way it was done in DataLogging.yaml. In the example, change message.input.Sensors to true.
  5. Recompile and run the role you are playing back the data with. In the example, rerun ./b configure and ./b build, then run ./b run test/sensor to locally run the role.
  6. For this example, it makes sense to view the robot in NUsight. Find out how to set up NUsight on the NUbook Getting Started page.

Playing back recorded data is useful when:

  • Working remotely, where the data was previously recorded or recorded by another team member
  • Testing a system with the same input data
  • Not wanting to run the real robot continuously, where it is possible to use the same data
  • Viewing the Visual Mesh in NUsight, due to bandwidth issues in sending it over the network
NUbots acknowledges the traditional custodians of the lands within our footprint areas: Awabakal, Darkinjung, Biripai, Worimi, Wonnarua, and Eora Nations. We acknowledge that our laboratory is situated on unceded Pambalong land. We pay respect to the wisdom of our Elders past and present.
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